Over 200 Scientists & Doctors Call For Increased Vitamin D Use To Combat COVID-19

#VitaminDforAll (for questions or fact checking assistance, contact press@vitaminDforAll.org)

Scientific evidence indicates vitamin D reduces infections & deaths

Dec 7, 2020

To all governments, public health officials, doctors, and healthcare workers,

[Residents of the USA: Text “VitaminDforAll” to 50409 to send this to your state’s governor.]

Research shows low vitamin D levels almost certainly promote COVID-19 infections, hospitalizations, and deaths. Given its safety, we call for immediate widespread increased vitamin D intakes.

Vitamin D modulates thousands of genes and many aspects of immune function, both innate and adaptive. The scientific evidence1 shows that:

  • Higher vitamin D blood levels are associated with lower rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
  • Higher D levels are associated with lower risk of a severe case (hospitalization, ICU, or death).
  • Intervention studies (including RCTs) indicate that vitamin D can be a very effective treatment.
  • Many papers reveal several biological mechanisms by which vitamin D influences COVID-19.
  • Causal inference modelling, Hill’s criteria, the intervention studies & the biological mechanisms indicate that vitamin D’s influence on COVID-19 is very likely causal, not just correlation.

Vitamin D is well known to be essential, but most people do not get enough. Two common definitions of inadequacy are deficiency < 20ng/ml (50nmol/L), the target of most governmental organizations, and insufficiency < 30ng/ml (75nmol/L), the target of several medical societies & experts.2 Too many people have levels below these targets. Rates of vitamin D deficiency <20ng/ml exceed 33% of the population in most of the world, and most estimates of insufficiency <30ng/ml are well over 50% (but much higher in many countries).3 Rates are even higher in winter, and several groups have notably worse deficiency: the overweight, those with dark skin (especially far from the equator), and care home residents. These same groups face increased COVID-19 risk.

It has been shown that 3875 IU (97mcg) daily is required for 97.5% of people to reach 20ng/ml, and 6200 IU (155mcg) for 30ng/ml,4 intakes far above all national guidelines. Unfortunately, the report that set the US RDA included an admitted statistical error in which required intake was calculated to be ~10x too low.4 Numerous calls in the academic literature to raise official recommended intakes had not yet resulted in increases by the time SARS-CoV-2 arrived. Now, many papers indicate that vitamin D affects COVID-19 more strongly than most other health conditions, with increased risk at levels < 30ng/ml (75nmol/L) and severely greater risk < 20ng/ml (50nmol/L).1

1 The evidence was comprehensively reviewed (188 papers) through mid-June [Benskin ‘20] & more recent publications are increasingly compelling [Merzon et al ‘20Kaufman et al ‘20Castillo et al ‘20]. (See also [Jungreis & Kellis ‘20] for deeper analysis of Castillo et al’s RCT results.) 2 E.g.: 20ng/ml: National Academy of Medicine (US, Canada), European Food Safety Authority, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Nordic Countries, Australia, New Zealand, & consensus of 11 international organizations. 30ng/ml: Endocrine Society, American Geriatrics Soc., & consensus of scientific experts. See also [Bouillon ‘17]. 3 [Palacios & Gonzalez ‘14Cashman et al ‘16van Schoor & Lips ‘17] Applies to China, India, Europe, US, etc. 4 [Heaney et al ‘15; Veugelers & Ekwaru ‘14]

Evidence to date suggests the possibility that the COVID-19 pandemic sustains itself in large part  through infection of those with low vitamin D, and that deaths are concentrated largely in those with deficiency. The mere possibility that this is so should compel urgent gathering of more vitamin D data. Even without more data, the preponderance of evidence indicates that increased vitamin D would help reduce infections, hospitalizations, ICU admissions, & deaths.

Decades of safety data show that vitamin D has very low risk: Toxicity would be extremely rare with the recommendations here. The risk of insufficient levels far outweighs any risk from levels that seem to provide most of the protection against COVID-19, and this is notably different from drugs. Vitamin D is much safer than steroids, such as dexamethasone, the most widely accepted treatment to have also demonstrated a large COVID-19 benefit. Vitamin D’s safety is more like that of face masks. There is no need to wait for further clinical trials to increase use of something so safe, especially when remedying high rates of deficiency/insufficiency should already be a priority.

Therefore, we call on all governments, doctors, and healthcare workers worldwide to immediately recommend and implement efforts appropriate to their adult populations to increase vitamin D, at least until the end of the pandemic. Specifically to:

  1. Recommend amounts from all sources sufficient to achieve 25(OH)D serum levels over 30ng/ml (75nmol/L), a widely endorsed minimum with evidence of reduced COVID-19 risk.
  2. Recommend to adults vitamin D intake of 4000 IU (100mcg) daily (or at least 2000 IU) in the absence of testing. 4000 IU is widely regarded as safe.5
  3. Recommend that adults at increased risk of deficiency due to excess weight, dark skin, or living in care homes may need higher intakes (eg, 2x). Testing can help to avoid levels too low or high.
  4. Recommend that adults not already receiving the above amounts get 10,000 IU (250mcg) daily for 2-3 weeks (or until achieving 30ng/ml if testing), followed by the daily amount above. This practice is widely regarded as safe. The body can synthesize more than this from sunlight under the right conditions (e.g., a summer day at the beach). Also, the NAM (US) and EFSA (Europe) both label this a “No Observed Adverse Effect Level” even as a daily maintenance intake.
  5. Measure 25(OH)D levels of all hospitalized COVID-19 patients & treat w/ calcifediol or D3, to at least remedy insufficiency <30ng/ml (75nmol/L), possibly with a protocol along the lines of Castillo et al ‘20 or Rastogi et al ’20, until evidence supports a better protocol.

Many factors are known to predispose individuals to higher risk from exposure to SARS-CoV-2, such as age, being male, comorbidities, etc., but inadequate vitamin D is by far the most easily and quickly modifiable risk factor with abundant evidence to support a large effect. Vitamin D is inexpensive and has negligible risk compared to the considerable risk of COVID-19. Please Act Immediately

5 The following include 4000 IU within their tolerable intakes in official guidelines: NAM (US, Canada), SACN (UK), EFSA (Europe), Endocrine Society (international), Nordic countries, The Netherlands, Australia & New Zealand, UAE, and the American Geriatrics Soc. (USA, elderly). No major agency specifies a lower tolerable intake limit. The US NAM said 4000 IU “is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals.” See also [Giustina et al ‘20].

The signatories below endorse this letter. Affiliations do not imply endorsement of the letter by the institutions themselves.

This letter takes no position on other public health measures besides vitamin D. Personal views of individual signatories on any other matter do not represent the group as a whole.

All signatories declare no conflicts of interest except as noted.

To emphasize: The organizing signatories have no conflicts of interest in this area (financial or otherwise), nor have they done research in this area prior to 2020.

Signatories (215 total; other counts at the end)-recom- mended intake-personal daily intake

Dr. Karl Pfleger, PhD AI & Computer Science, Stanford. Former Google Data Scientist. Biotechnology Investor, AgingBiotech.info, San Francisco, CA, USA. (organizing signatory)-4000 IU-7000 IU

Dr. Gareth Davies, PhD Medical Physics, Imperial College, London, UK. Codex World’s Top 50 Innovator 2019. Independent Researcher. Lead author of “Evidence Supports a Causal Role for Vitamin D Status in COVID-19 Outcomes.” (organizing signatory)-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. Bruce W Hollis, PhD. Professor of Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, USA.-4000 IU-6000 IU

Dr. Barbara J Boucher, MD, FRCP (London). Honorary Professor (Medicine), Blizard Institute, Bart’s & The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, UK. (significantly contributing signatory)-4000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Ashley Grossman, MD FRCP FMedSci. Emeritus Professor of Endocrinology, University of Oxford, UK. Professor of Neuroendocrinology, Barts and the London School of Medicine. 2020 Endocrine Society Laureate Award.-2000 IU-2200 IU

Dr. Gerry Schwalfenberg, MD, CCFP, FCFP. Assistant Clinical Professor in Family Medicine, University of Alberta, Canada.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Giovanna Muscogiuri, MD PhD. Associate Editor, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Section of Endocrinology, University “Federico II” of Naples, Naples, Italy..-4000 IU-1000 IU

Dr. Michael F. Holick, PhD MD. Professor Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics and Molecular Medicine, Director Vitamin D, Skin and Bone Research Laboratory, Boston University Medical Center, USA. (6000 IU) Disclosure: Consultant Biogena and speaker’s Bureau Abbott Inc.-4000 IU-6000 IU

Dr. John Umhau, MD, MPH. CDR, USPHS (ret). President, Academy of Medicine of Washington, DC, USA. Ex-NIH: co-author of the first peer-reviewed report linking vitamin D deficiency with acute respiratory infection. (significantly contributing signatory)-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Pawel Pludowski, MD, dr hab. Associate Professor, Biochemistry, Radioimmunology and Experimental Medicine, Children’s Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland. Chair, European Vitamin D Association (EVIDAS) .-4000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Cedric F. Garland, DrPH. Professor Emeritus, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California, San Diego, USA.-4000 IU-6000 IU

Dr. Jose M. Benlloch, PhD. Professor, Director of the Institute for Instrumentation on Molecular Imaging, CSIC-UPV, Valencia, Spain.-2000 IU-3000 IU

Dr. Samantha Kimball, PhD, MLT. Professor, St. Mary’s University, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Research Director, GrassrootsHealth Nutrient Research Institute [non-profit]. (significantly contributing signatory)-4000 IU-6000 IU

Dr. William B. Grant, PhD Physics, U. of California, Berkeley. Director at Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center , San Francisco, CA, USA. Disclosure: Receives funding from Bio-Tech Pharmacal, Inc.-4000 IU-5300 IU

Dr. Carol L. Wagner, MD. Professor, Medical University of South Carolina, USA.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Paul Marik, MD, FCCP, FCCM. Chief of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Professor of Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Morry Silberstein, MD. Associate Professor, Curtin University, Australia.-4000 IU-

Dr. Vatsal Thakkar, MD. Founder, Reimbursify, NY, USA.  Former faculty, NYU and Vanderbilt.  Op-Ed writer on Vitamin D and COVID-19. (significantly contributing signatory)-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. Peter H Cobbold, PhD. Emeritus Professor, Cell Biology, University of Liverpool, UK.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Afrozul Haq, PhD. Professor Dept of Food Technology, Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi, India.-4000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Barry H. Thompson, MD, FAAP, FACMG. Clinical Associate Professor (Pediatrics), Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Reinhold Vieth, PhD, FCACB. Professor, Departments of Nutritional Sciences and Laboratory Medicine & Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Canada. Director (retired), Bone and Mineral Group Laboratory, Mt Sinai Hospital. Disclosure: Receives patent royalties from Ddrops (an infant vitamin D supplement).-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Linda Benskin, PhD, RN, SRN(Ghana), CWCN, CWS, DAPWCA. Independent Researcher for Tropical Developing Countries and Ferris Mfg. Corp, Texas, USA. (significantly contributing signatory)-4000 IU-4000 IU

Jim O’Neill, CEO, SENS Research Foundation. Former principal associate deputy secretary of Health and Human Services, USA.-4000 IU-6000 IU

Dr. Eric Feigl-Ding, PhD. Epidemiologist & Health Economist. Senior Fellow, Federation of American Scientists. USA.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Rt Hon David Davis MP, Member of Parliament (Conservative Party). BSc, Joint Hons Molecular Science / Computer Science, Warwick University, UK.-4000 IU-6000 IU

Dr. Rupa Huq MP, Member of Parliament (Labour Party). PhD, Cultural Studies, University of East London, UK.-4000 IU-

Dr. Susan J Whiting, PhD. Professor Emerita, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Richard Mazess. PhD. Emeritus Professor, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Helga Rhein, MD (retired). Sighthill Health Centre, Edinburgh, UK. (significantly contributing signatory)-4000 IU-3500 IU

Dr. Andrea Doeschl-Wilson, PhD. Professor of Infectious disease genetics and modelling, The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, UK.-2000 IU-

Dr. Ute-Christiane Meier, Dr med habil, PhD (Oxon), Dipl-Biol. Visiting lecturer, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King’s College, London, UK and Privatdozentin, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany. Disclosure: Patent 20160131666: “Biomarkers for inflammatory response.”-4000 IU-2500 IU

Dr. Luigi Gennari, MD PhD. Full Professor, Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neurosciences, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.-4000 IU-3500 IU

Dr. Ased Ali, MBChB, PhD, FRCS. Consultant Urological Surgeon, Mid Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, UK.-4000 IU-8000 IU

Dr. Pavel Kocovsky, PhD DSc FRSE FRSC. Professor Charles University, Prague, and Czech Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic.-4000 IU-6000 IU

Dr. Ace Lipson, MD. Endocrinologist. Clinical Professor, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.-4000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Attila R Garami, MD, PhD Multidisciplinary Medical Sciences. Senior Biomarker Consultant, Switzerland.-4000 IU-2500 IU

Dr. David S Grimes, MD (retired), FRCP, University of Manchester, UK.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Larry Callahan, PhD. Chemist, FDA, Maryland, USA.-2000 IU-3000 IU

Dr. Jeanne M Marconi, MD, Pediatrics. Vice President of PM Pediatrics, New York, USA.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Spiros Karras, MD. Endocrinologist, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism-Diabetes Center, 1st Department of Internal Medicine, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Joanna Byers, MBChB, University of Birmingham, UK.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Jaimin Bhatt, MBChB, MMed(Surgery) FRCS(Urol) FEBU. Consultant Urological Surgeon, Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, UK. (2000 IU)-4000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Christiane Northrup, MD. Obstetrician/Gynecologist, USA.-4000 IU-7500 IU

Dr. Jörg Spitz, Dr med. Academy of Human Medicine, Schlangenbad, Germany.-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. Naghmeh Mirhosseini, MD, PhD, MPH. Research Associate, School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Canada..-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Iacopo Chiodini, MD. Associate Professor of Endocrinology, Dept. of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. Head, Unit for Bone Metabolism Diseases and Diabetes, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, IRCCS, Milan, Italy.-4000 IU-3500 IU

Dr. David C Anderson, MD MSc FRCP FRCPE FRCPath. Retired Physician and Endocrinologist, Former Professor of Endocrinology, Manchester University, UK and Professor of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Colin Bannon, MBChB. GP (retired), Devon, UK.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Patricia S. Latham, MD EdD. Professor of Pathology & Medicine, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Teresa Fuller, MD PhD. Pediatrician, Owings Mills, MD, USA.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Omar Wasow, PhD, Harvard. Assistant Professor, Politics, Princeton University, NJ, USA.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Fabio Vescini, MD PhD. Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit, University-Hospital S. Maria della Misericordia, Italy.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Emily Grossman, PhD Molecular Biology, University of Manchester, UK. Science Author, Broadcaster and Educator.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. David Carman, MBChB, University of Cape Town, South Africa.-4000 IU-3000 IU

Dr. Kalliopi Kotsa, MD PhD. Professor, Endocrinology-Diabetes, Dept of Medicine, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Eva Kocovska, PhD, Queen Mary University of London. Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. Medical College, Prague, Czech Republic.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Benjamin Jacobs, MBBS MD MRCP(UK) FRCPCH. Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, UK.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Joan Lappe, PhD RN FAAN. Professor, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.-4000 IU-

Dr. Ronald A. Primas, MD FACP FACPM DABIHM CTH. New York, NY, USA.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Cristina Eller Vainicher, MD. Unit of Endocrinology, Fondazione Ca’Granda IRCCS OSpedale Maggiore Policlinico Milan, Italy. Head of the outpatients clinic for osteoporosis.-4000 IU-3500 IU

Dr. Matthias Gauger, MD. General Practitioner, Switzerland.-2000 IU-3000 IU

Dr. David Warwick, DDS. Dentist, Alberta, Canada. Published Researcher.-4000 IU-8000 IU

Dr. Sunil J. Wimalawansa, MD PhD MBA FRCP FRCPath FACE FACP DSc. Professor of Medicine, Endocrinology & Nutrition, Cardiometabolic & Endocrine Institute, New Jersey, USA.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Perry S. Holman. Executive Director, Vitamin D Society, Canada.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Sharon McDonnell, MPH. Biostatistician, GrassrootsHealth Nutrient Research Institute [non-profit], Encinitas, CA, USA.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Mike Fischer. Founder, VitaminDassociation.org [non-profit]. Director of Research, Systems Biology Laboratory, UK.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Lina Zgaga, MD, PhD. Associate Professor of Epidemiology, Trinity College Dublin, University of Dublin, Ireland.-2000 IU-3000 IU

Dr. Irwin Jungreis, PhD, Harvard University. Research Scientist, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.-2000 IU-2700 IU

Dr. Jane Coad, PhD. Professor of Nutrition, Massey University, New Zealand.-4000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Cedric Annweiler, MD PhD. Professor of Geriatric Medicine, School of Medicine, Health Faculty, University of Angers and Department of Medicine, Clinique de l’Anjou, Angers, France. Disclosure: occasional consultant for Mylan Laboratories Inc.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Salvatore Minisola, MD. Full Professor of Internal Medicine, “Sapienza” Rome University, Italy.-4000 IU-

Dr. Mats B. Humble, MD PhD. Psychiatrist (retired), Senior lecturer, Department of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.-2000 IU-3000 IU

Dr. Andrea Fabbri, MD PhD. Professor of Endocrinology, Head Endocrinology Division, Ospedale CTO A. Alesini, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.-4000 IU-7000 IU

Dr. Steve Jones, PhD FRS. Emeritus Professor of Human Genetics, Dept of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, UK.-4000 IU-

Dr. Hermann Brenner, MD MPH. Professor of Epidemiology, Head of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Helder F. B. Martins, MD PhD (hon).Specialist & Emeritus Professor of Public Health. Former Minister of Health, Mozambique. Former WHO. Member, Mozambican Government COVID-19 advisory committee.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. G. Siegfried Wedel, MD. Internist-Nephrologist (retired), Vierhöfen, Germany.-4000 IU-8000 IU

Dr. Robin Weiss, PhD FRCPath FMedSci FRS. Emeritus Professor of Viral Oncology, Division of Infection & Immunity, University College London, UK.-4000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Giancarlo Isaia, MD. Full Professor, University of Turini. President of the Academy of Medicine of Turin, Italy.-2000 IU-

Dr. Susanne Bejerot, MD. Professor, Örebro University, Sweden.-2000 IU-3000 IU

Dr. Antonio D’Avolio, PhD. Professor of Pharmacology, University of Turin, Italy.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Gustavo Duque, MD PhD FRACP FGSA. Chair of Medicine & Director of the Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Science (AIMSS). The University of Melbourne and Western Health, Melbourne, Australia.-2000 IU-0 IU

Dr. Giovanni Passeri, MD PhD. Associate Professor, Internal Medicine, Dep. of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Pankaj Kapahi, PhD. Professor, Buck Institute for Research on Aging, Novato, California, USA.-4000 IU-

Dr. Giuseppe Poli, MD PhD. Emeritus Professor of General Pathology, University of Turin, Italy.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Patrick McCullough, MD. Chief of Medical Services, Summit Behavioral Healthcare, Cincinnati, Ohio USA.-4000 IU-50,000 IU

Dr. Prashanth Kulkarni, MD DM FSCAI FACC. Consultant Cardiologist, Hyderabad, India.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Klaus Badenhoop, MD PhD. Professor, Division of Endocrinology & Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, Goethe-University Hospital, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. José-María Sánchez-Puelles, PhD. Senior Researcher, CIB Margarita Salas, CSIC, Spain-2000 IU-

Dr. Carmelinda Ruggiero, MD PhD. Professor of Geriatric Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy. Head of the Orthogeriatric Unit, S Maria Misericordia Teaching Hospital, Perugia, Italy. Disclosure: Occasional consultant for UCB Pharma.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Jose Manuel Quesada Gomez, MD, PHD, Honorary Professor, University of Cordoba. Maimonides Research Institute, Cordoba. Spain.-2000 IU-Calcifediol 266μg/ month

Dr. Giovanni Minisola, MD. President Emeritus of Italian Society for Rheumatology. Scientific Director of “San Camillo – Forlanini” Foundation, Rome, Italy.-4000 IU-

Christine French, MS. Research Analyst at GrassrootsHealth Nutrient Research Institute [non-profit], Encinitas, CA, USA.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Patrizia Presbitero, MD. Clinical and interventional cardiology, Cardio Center, Humanitas Research Hospital Rozzano, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.-4000 IU-

Dr. Ken Redcross, MD. Doctor and on-camera medical expert, New York, USA. Disclosure: scientific advisory board of the Organic & Natural Health Association.-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. Rajeev Venugopal, MBBS FRCS FACS DM. Consultant Plastic Surgeon/ Associate Lecturer in Surgery, University of the West Indies at Mona, Jamaica.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Gianluca Isaia, MD PhD. Geriatrician, Section of Geriatrics, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, A.O.U. Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Molinette, Turin, Italy.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Piero Stratta, MD. Professor of Nephrology, University Piemonte Orientale, Italy.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Ben Schöttker, PhD. Scientist, Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Ageing Research, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.-2000 IU-1400 IU

Dr. Roberto Fantozzi, MD. Full Professor of Pharmacology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.-4000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Sheryl L Bishop, PhD. Professor Emeritus, University of Texas Medical Branch, School of Nursing, Galveston, Texas, USA.-4000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Wayne Jonas, MD. Professor of Family Medicine, Georgetown University. Former Director NIH Office of Alternative Medicine, USA.-2000 IU-

Dr. Ferdinando Silveri, Medical Director of the Rheumatology Clinic of the Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona, Italy.-4000 IU-

Dr. Vatsalya Vatsalya, MD. Department of Medicine, University of Louisville. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism NIH, USA.-2000 IU-

Dr. Rachel Nicoll, PhD. Medical researcher, Umeå University, Sweden.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Fausto Crapanzano, MD, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Chief, MFR Department, Provincial Health Authority, Agrigento, Italy.-4000 IU-

Dr. Raimund von Helden, Dr med. Family medicine. Institute VitaminDelta, Lennestadt, Germany. Disclosure: Institute VitaminDelta sells consumer advice including on vitamin D for modest cost, but with no ties to other commercial interests.-4000 IU-8000 IU

Carole Baggerly, Founder & Director, GrassrootsHealth Nutrient Research Institute [non-profit], Encinitas, CA, USA.-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. Edward Gorham, PhD MPH. Adjunct Professor, University of California San Diego, School of Medicine, Dept of Family Medicine and Public Health, USA.-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. David Verhaeghen, MD, Anesthesiology, Algology and Pain Medicine, Aalst, Belgium.-2000 IU-3000 IU

Dr. Silvia Migliaccio, MD PhD. Associate Professor at University Foro Italico of Roma, Italy. Secretary of the Italian Society of Food Sciences.-4000 IU-1000 IU

Dr. Vítor Oliveira, MD, Internal Medicine, Brazil.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Djamel Deramchi, MD. Functional medicine. GrassrootsHealth Certified Vitamin D*practitioner and Coimbra Protocol Certified Doctor. France.-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. William Shaver, MD. Physician, Gastroenterologist, Lubbock, TX, USA.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Wim Soetaert, PhD. Prof. Microbiology & Biotechnology, Ghent University, Centre for Industrial Biotechnology and Biocatalysis (InBio.be), Belgium.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Mark S. Braiman, PhD. Professor of Chemistry, Syracuse University, USA.-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. Mikko Paunio, MD PhD MHS. Adjunct Professor in General Epidemiology, University of Helsinki. Medical Counselor Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Finland.-4000 IU-6000 IU

Dr. Olaf Dathe, Dr med. OBGYN, Munich, Germany.-4000 IU-6500 IU

Dr. Manfred Eggersdorfer, PhD. Professor for Healthy Ageing, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands. Member of the Advisory Board of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Disclosure: Head of Nutrition Science and Advocacy, DSM Nutritional Products. Member of the scientific board of PM International.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Chris Newton, PhD. Research director, Centre for Immuno-Metabolism, Microbiome and Bio-energetic Research (CIMMBER), UK.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Doreen Brodmann, Dr med. Head of Nephrology, Spitalzentrum Oberwallis, Switzerland.-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. Srijit Mishra, PhD, Economics. Professor, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.-2000 IU-

Dr. Marco Infante, MD. Adjunct Professor of Endocrinology, UniCamillus – Saint Camillus International University of Health Sciences, Rome, Italy.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Jean-Marc Sabatier, PhD HDR. Director of research at CNRS (French National Centre for Scientific Research), Institut de NeuroPhysiopathologie (INP), Marseille, France.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Mohsin Sidat, MD PhD. University Eduardo Mondlane, Mondlane, Mozambique.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Pallavi Devulapalli, MBBS MRCGP. Hospital Practitioner in Dermatology. GP, Vide Healthcare. Norfolk, UK.-2000 IU-

Dr. Dimitrios T. Papadimitriou, MD PhD. Director, Department of Pediatric-Adolescent Endocrinology & Diabetes, Athens Medical Center, Greece.-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. Bodo Schertel, Dr med. Professor, Hochschule Mannheim, Germany.-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. Jahit Sacarlal, MD PhD MPH. Professor, Department of Microbiology, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique.-4000 IU-7500 IU

Dr. Espen Haug, Phd. Professor, School of Economics and Business, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Norway.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Martin Hewison, PhD. Professor of Molecular Endocrinology, Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. Disclosure: Received honorarium from Thornton Ross (UK) for online seminar.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Damien Downing, MBBS MRSB. President, British Society for Ecological Medicine, UK.-4000 IU-8000 IU

Dr. Linda A. Linday, MD. Assistant Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr.  Rose Anne Kenny, MD FRCP FRCPI FRCPEdin FTCD FESC MRIA. Professor, Chair of Medical Gerontology, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Mihkel Zilmer, Dr. med. Professor, Medical Biochemistry, Head of Department of Biochemistry, Tartu University, Faculty of Medicine, Estonia.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Jaan Eha, MD PhD. Professor of Cardiology, Tartu University, Faculty of Medicine, Estonia.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Anna Moore, MBBS PgDipNutrMed, London, UK.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Roger D. Seheult, MD. Assistant Professor, Loma Linda University School of Medicine. Associate Professor, UC Riverside School of Medicine. Cofounder, MedCram, USA.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Jean-Claude Souberbielle, PhD PharmD. Former head of Hormonology Laboratory, Necker Hospital, Paris, France.-2000 IU-3300 IU

Dr. Emmanuelle Faucon, MD, Toulon, France. Former Medical Affairs Director in Immunology and Virology, Bristol Myers Squibb.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Aida Santaolalla, PhD. Senior Data Scientist, Cancer Epidemiology, King’s College London, UK.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Elisa Song, MD. Pediatrician, Belmont, CA, USA.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Mylene Huynh, MD MPH. Colonel (ret), USAF. Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, USA.-2000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Yosef Weisman, MD. Professor. Retired head of Bone Desease Unit and the Vitamin D Lab, Tel Aviv Souraski Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Andrius Bleizgys, MD PhD. Lector of Clinic of Internal Diseases, Family Medicine and Oncology, Vilnius University Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius, Lithuania.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Keshav Singhal, FRCS MS(orth) M.Ch(orth). Professor, Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon. Chair British Association of Physicians of Indian Origin (BAPIO), Wales. Council Member & Trustee, Swansea University. Fellow of Learned Society of Wales, UK.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Gennadi Glinsky, MD PhD. Professor, Institute of Engineering in Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, USA.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Eero Vasar, MD PhD. Professor of Human Physiology, University of Tartu, Estonia.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Frank C. Church, PhD. Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Michael J. A. Robb, MD. Physician, Oto-Neurologist, Robb Oto-Neurology Clinic, Phoenix, Arizona. Past President, Association of American Physicians and Surgeons (AAPS), USA.-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. Giles Duffield, PhD. Associate Professor, Department of Biological Sciences & Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Harry Wichers, PhD. Professor in Immune Modulation by Food, Wageningen UR, The Netherlands.-2000 IU-1000 IU

Dr. Matthew A. Nehs, MD. Assistant Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School. Program Director, Harvard Combined Endocrine Surgery Fellowship. USA.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Hana Fakhoury Hajeer, PhD. Associate Professor of Biochemistry, Alfaisal University, Saudi Arabia.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Fatme Al Anouti, PhD Biochemistry. Associate Professor, College of Natural and Health Sciences, Zayed University, UAE.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. José C. Tutor, PharmD PhD MB. Pharmacology Unit, Health Research Institute, University Clinical Hospital, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. Wolfgang Schrott, PhD. Professor (retired), Chemistry, Hochschule Hof University of Applied Sciences, Germany.-4000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Brian Lenzkes, MD, Internal Medicine, San Diego, CA, USA.-2000 IU-

Dr. Ryan (Nguyen) Hoang, MD. Resident Physician, Pediatrics, Children’s Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Kansas, USA. Reddit Moderator & Editor at /r/science & /r/coronavirus.-4000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Hayley A Young, PhD. Associate Professor, Nutrition and Behaviour, Swansea University, UK.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Luis Lugones, PhD. Assistant Professor Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Beth Ellen DiLuglio, RDN LDN MS in Human Nutrition from Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons Institute of Human Nutrition. Former Associate Professor of Nutrition, Palm Beach State College, Lake Worth, FL. Registered Dietitian Nutritionist, Florida, USA. Disclosure: Researcher & writer for OptimalDx.com.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. David Benton, PhD DSc. Professor, Swansea University, UK.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Ljubiša Mihajlović, PhD, Molecular biology. Professor, Academy of Technical and Educational Sciences, Niš, Serbia. CEO, Geneinfo, Niš, Serbia.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Huub Savelkoul, PhD. Full Professor, Head, Cell Biology and Immunology Group, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.-2000 IU-1000 IU

Dr. Cicero Galli Coimbra, MD PhD. Assistant Professor of Neurology and Neuroscience, Federal University of São Paulo. President, Institute for Investigation and Treatment of Autoimmunity, Brazil. Creator, “Coimbra Protocol” for autoimmune diseases.-4000 IU-20,000 IU

Dr. Parag Singhal, MD FRCP FACP. Professor of Medicine, University of South Wales, UK. Consultant Endocrinologist.-4000 IU-3300 IU

Dr. Meis Moukayed, PhD (Cantab), Professor of Health and Life Sciences, American University in Dubai, Dubai, UAE.-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. Linda Bluestein, MD. Clinical Assistant Professor, Medical College of Wisconsin, USA.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Alex Bäcker, PhD, Biology, Caltech, USA.-4000 IU-

Dr. Chad G. Kahl, MD SFS FAAFP. Clinical Assistant professor of Medicine, Uniformed Services University. Chief Medical Officer, Pentagon Flight Medicine Clinic, USA.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Renu Mahtani, MD FMNM. Consulting Physician and Founder, Autoimmunity Treatment Center, Pune, India.-4000 IU-20,000 IU

Dr. Andrea Deledda, PhD. Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, University of Cagliari. Nutritionist, Obesity Center, University Hospital of Cagliari, Italy.-2000 IU-2000 IU

Dr. Alessandro D. Santin, MD. Professor of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Kelly McCann, MD MPH. Physician and President, The Spring Center, Costa Mesa, CA, USA.-4000 IU-7500 IU

Dr. Alessandro Comandone, MD. Director, Dept. of Oncology, San Giovanni Bosco Hospital Turin, Italy.-2000 IU-

Dr. Endrit Shahini, MD MSC FPO-IRCCS. Candiolo Cancer Institute, Candiolo (Torino), Italy.-4000 IU-

Dr. Phillip C. Gioia, MD MPH FAAP FACPM, Certificate in Clinical Informatics. Medical Director of Cayuga County Health Department, NY, USA.-2000 IU-800 IU

Dr. Edward Jude, MBBS MD FRCP. Professor of Medicine, University of Manchester, UK.-4000 IU-3000 IU

Dr. Jaimela J Dulaney, MD. Cardiology, Primary Care, Nutrition, Port Charlotte, Florida, USA.-4000 IU-5000 IU

Dr. Sudeepta Varma, MD DFAPA. Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, NY, USA.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Olga Louro, MD PhD. Clínical Laboratory, University Clínical Hospital, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. Joerg Velker, PhD. Chief Patent Counsel, Idorsia Pharmaceuticals, Switzerland. Former Senior Lab Head, Medicinal Chemistry, Actelion.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Maartje van Putten, PhD. Member of European Parliament 1989-99, Committee on Environment Heath & Consumer Affairs. Chair, OECD NCP, The Netherlands.-2000 IU-

Dr. Maria Joana Pinto, Teacher (Docente), Medical Course, Pará State University (UEPA), Marabá Campus, Pará, Brazil.-4000 IU-200,000 IU (auto immune disease)

Dr. Sergio Luis Menéndez Lucero, MD PhD. General Practitioner, Autoimmune Focus. Spain.-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. Jean-Michel Wendling, MD, Occupationnal Médecine, ACST, Strasbourg, France.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Georg Moessmer (Mößmer), Dr med., Hemostaseology, Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.-4000 Iu-6000 IU

Dr. Haladia Pessotti de Campos Simião, MD. Endocrinologist, Clinical Nutritionist, & General Practitioner, São Paulo, Brazil.-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. Franklin Roy Long, MD MPH/TM ABOIM. Family Medicine, Vacaville, CA, USA.-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. Stelios Bekiros, PhD. Professor, European University Institute, Department of Economics, Florence, Italy. Affiliate Research Fellow, IPAG Business School. Senior Fellow, Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis (RCEA).-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Farhad Zangeneh, MD. Medical Director & CMO, Endocrine, Diabetes and Osteoporosis Clinic, Washington, DC, USA.-4000 IU-7100 IU

Dr. Adrian F Gombart, PhD. Principal Investigator, Linus Pauling Institute, Professor, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Oregon State University, USA.-2000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Sari Arponen, MD PhD. Internist and Infectious Diseases Specialist, Associate Professor, Camilo José Cela University, Madrid. University Hospital of Torrejón, Spain.-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. Naomi Parrella, MD FAAFP Dipl.ABOM. Assistant Professor. Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.-2000 IU-

Dr. Jens Freese, Doctor of Natural Sciences (Dr rer nat, Germany). Dr. Freese Institute for Sport and Nutritional Immunology, Cologne, Germany.-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. Luciano G Nina, MD. Assistant Professor, Faculdade de Medicina de Jundiaí, Sao Paulo, Brazil.-4000 IU-

Dr. Robert M Hansen, MD. Internal Medicine, Critical Care Medicine, Anesthesiology. Managing Partner, Redding Anesthesia Associates Medical Group, Redding, CA, USA.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Canan Karatay, MD. Professor of Heart and Internal Diseases, former Rector of Istanbul Bilim (Science) University, Istanbul, Turkey.-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. David Brownstein, MD. Clinical Professor of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine. Medical Director, Center for Holistic Medicine, West Bloomfield, Michigan, Michigan, USA.-4000 IU-6000 IU

Dr. Vassaras Alexandros-Charalampos, MD, NeuroImmunology. Papageorgiou General Hospital, Greece.-4000 IU-12,500 IU

Dr. Sarfraz Zaidi, MD FACP FACE. Endocrinologist, Camarillo, CA. Former Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine, UCLA, USA.-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. Maria Morello, PhD, Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Senior Researcher, Department of Experimental Medicine, Tor Vergata University, Rome University Hospital, Rome, Italy.-4000 IU-

Dr. Bryan A Stepanenko, MD MPH IFMCP. Active Duty US Army, Member of Task Force Resilience, Army Public Health, Primary Care Physician, USA.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Yamile Mussa, MD. Pediatrician, Autism Specialist, Bolívar, Venezuela.-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Dr. Joseph Parambil, MD. Pulmonologist, Cleveland Clinic, Respiratory Institute, and Assistant Professor of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA.-4000 IU-

Dr. David Norman Grant, Former Consultant Neurosurgeon, Great Ormond St. Hospital and National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Ellen C G Grant, MBChB, DObstRCOG, Retired Physician and Medical Gynaecolgist, Kingston upon Thames, UK.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Peter Moon, PhD. Professor Emeritus, Biomateriels Director, Department of General Practice, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Dentistry, Richmond, VA, USA.-4000 IU-17,000 IU

Dr. Ram Yogendra, MD MPH. Anesthesiologist, Private Practice. Founder & Director, ECA Wellness, Rhode Island, USA.-4000 IU-4000 IU

Dr. Laura Di Renzo, PhD. Professor, Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy.-4000 IU-

Dr. Theo van Kempen, Dr Ir, PhD. Adjunct Professor, North Carolina State University, USA.-4000 IU-4400 IU

Dr. Laurence S. Harbige, PhD CBiol FRSB. Deputy Director of the Lipidomics and Nutrition Research Centre (LNRC) and Senior Lecturer in the School of Human Sciences, London Metropolitan University, UK.-2000 IU-

Dr. Björn Hammarskjöld, MD, PhD in Biochemistry. Assistant professor in Pediatrics at Strömstad Academy, Östervåla, Sweden.-4000 IU-10,000 IU

Signature statistics as of Jan 25, 2021:

215 total signatories

111 professors

129 signatories with medical degrees

113 signatories with PhDs or equivalent or higher degrees

126 signatories with personal intakes of at least 4000 IU per day

29 signatories with personal intakes of at least 10,000 IU per day

33 countries

Our goal is to change policy and standard of care to save lives and help mitigate the pandemic, not to create the longest possible list of names. At this point, we have enough PhDs and medical doctors. We welcome additional signature requests from those especially well placed to help convince government decision makers to implement the calls-to-action enumerated in the letter, such as senior professors in areas such as immunology, infectious disease, endocrinology, or vitamin D research, or related areas, or such as officials at national or international public health bodies (CDC, WHO, etc.) or members of COVID-19/pandemic tasks forces for large jurisdictions. If you are such an authority, please fill out this form. If you are not but would like to help, please spread the word via social media, directly to your local public health and political leaders, and directly to the most senior people that you have a personal or professional route to that might be able to help.