Nutrigenomics

Maximise your Genetic Potential through Nutrition

Nutrigenomics is a field of science that explores the relationship between nutrition and genetics, and it’s changing the future of health and medicine.

Your DNA consists of chemical instructions that is present in every body cell that make us who we are and drive every body function. We can investigate how individual genetic variations affect the body’s response to nutrients, and how nutrients affect gene expression. In simpler terms, it looks at how the food we eat interacts with our genes, and how this interaction can influence our health and susceptibility to diseases.

This biological code from your DNA doesn’t just impact gender, height, and eye colour. It tells the body how to do everything, including how well you absorb and use specific nutrients like vitamins,  affecting your nutrient needs. It impacts production of sex hormones, reproduction and fertility, and neurotransmitters, influencing thinking and emotional wellbeing. It regulates how well your cells can grow and repair, even how efficiently they produce energy, or how readily you store excess energy as fat. In short, it’s the very code of life

Common variations in our genetic code, called SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) create our individuality, and can also result in important differences in function, affecting, for example, how much of a chemical in the body is made, how well it works, or how our cells respond to it. These SNPs don’t create ill-health in themselves, but in combination they can affect our energy, mental wellbeing, detoxification and beyond, impacting health and contributing to development of specific health conditions. Looking at your genetic differences unlocks a personal health ‘blueprint’, offering a detailed insight into your unique biological strengths and weaknesses and a deeper understanding of your health.

Of course the environment plays a big part too. What we do and what we are exposed to interacts dynamically with our body and mind. As an example; if we are not very good at processing caffeine, understanding that can encourage us to reduce our intake of coffee perhaps, or there are ways to support the body’s system to handle it more effectively. 

Nutrigenomics aims to provide personalised dietary recommendations based on an individual’s genetic makeup to optimize health and prevent or treat diseases.

Jo Gamble is a renowned, highly experienced, Functional Medicine Practitioner specialising in Nutrigenomics, and we’re delighted to have her onboard. Discover your DNA blueprint with Jo, and find out how to maximise your genetic potential, and health through nutrition, environmental, and lifestyle choices.

Make Positive Changes that Align with your Genetics and Optimise your Health and Wellbeing.

What Health Benefits can you Gain from Nutrigenomics?

Given the abundance of fad diets, weight loss regimes, and alternative medicine options, discerning the ideal solution can prove challenging. Despite experimenting with various elimination diets and supplements, achieving desired levels of health may still elude you.

The root of this challenge lies in the fact that each individual is distinct from one another. Your genetic composition defines what constitutes “health” for your body specifically. Nutrigenomics endeavors to decipher your unique genetic blueprint and devise a personalised nutritional strategy tailored to your DNA.

By understanding nutrition at the genetic level, nutrigenomics can help determine the exact lifestyle necessary to help you feel more energized, healthy and balanced.

  • Eating Behaviour
    Uncover your genetic eating tendencies that could heighten your inclination for sweets, snack cravings, and metabolic rate.
  • Food Allergies
    Even in the absence of visible signs of inflammation or reaction, your genetic makeup might unveil an intolerance to lactose, gluten, alcohol, or specific proteins. 
  • Nutrient Absorption
    Your genes can dictate which nutrients you may need more of, or less than what is generally recommended. Certain foods, or recommended dosage of vitamins or supplements may optimise or hinder your energy.
  • Energy Levels
    DNA analysis can pinpoint the foods that will provide you with an energy boost, enhance concentration, and improve sleep quality.
  • Athletic Activity
    Although exercise is advantageous for everyone, your genes can unveil the specific type and duration of exercise that will most effectively burn calories for you.
  • Emotional Stability
    DNA analysis can uncover how certain foods may provoke neurological and hormonal imbalances, potentially impacting conditions such as depression, anxiety, PMS, and bipolar disorders.
  • Metabolic Health Factors
    Explore the impact of your diet on your cholesterol and blood sugar levels. Gain insights into potential risks for diseases and autoimmune conditions such as fibromyalgia, chronic pain, cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.

What Health Conditions can Nutrigenomics help with?

Nutrigenomics can potentially help with a variety of health conditions by providing personalised dietary recommendations based on an individual’s genetic makeup. Some of the health conditions that nutrigenomics may assist with include:

  • Obesity and Weight Management
    Tailored dietary plans can optimize weight loss efforts based on genetic predispositions related to metabolism, appetite regulation, and fat storage.
  • Cardiovascular Diseases
    Nutrigenomic analysis can guide dietary modifications to manage cholesterol levels, blood pressure, and inflammation, reducing the risk of heart disease and stroke.
  • Diabetes
    Personalised nutrition plans can help regulate blood sugar levels and improve insulin sensitivity, aiding in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes.
  • Cancer Prevention and Treatment
    Nutritional genomics can identify dietary factors that may influence cancer risk and response to treatment, as well as help mitigate the side effects of cancer therapies.
  • Autoimmune Disorders
    Nutrigenomic insights can inform dietary strategies to support immune function and manage inflammation associated with autoimmune conditions like rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn’s disease. Other disorders that can be helped include autism and ADHD.
  • Hormonal Imbalances
    Genetic variations may affect how efficiently the body metabolizes and clears hormones such as oestrogen, testosterone, thyroid hormones, cortisol, insulin, and others. These variations can influence hormone levels and balance, potentially contributing to conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, adrenal fatigue, menopausal symptoms, and insulin resistance.
  • Mental Health Disorders
    Nutrigenomics can provide personalised dietary recommendations to manage gastrointestinal conditions like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and gluten sensitivity.
  • Digestive Disorders
    Explore the impact of your diet on your cholesterol and blood sugar levels. Gain insights into potential risks for diseases and autoimmune conditions such as fibromyalgia, chronic pain, cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.
  • Age-Related Diseases
    Personalised nutrition plans based on genetic factors can help mitigate age-related conditions such as cognitive decline, osteoporosis, and sarcopenia.
  • Allergies and Sensitivities
    Genetic analysis can identify predispositions to food allergies and intolerances, guiding individuals in avoiding triggering foods and optimizing nutrient intake.
  • Sports Performance and Fitness
    Nutrigenomics can inform athletes and fitness enthusiasts about optimal dietary strategies to enhance performance, recovery, and injury prevention based on genetic factors related to metabolism, muscle composition, and nutrient utilization.

Our Nutrigenomic DNA Test and Reporting Options

The DNA test is a simple, non-invasive mouth swab that is easy to do at home. The results take around 2 weeks after the sample is received. The results will need to be interpreted by Jo Gamble, and she will advise accordingly.

Once you have had your DNA tested, the available Reports are as follows:

Nutrient Core Report and Overview

This foundational report analyses how gene variants can affect food tolerance (and intolerance), appetite control and blood sugar balance, vitamin and mineral needs, detoxification ability, and susceptibility to inflammation and infection.

A Nutrient Core Report will help you understand the fundamental genetic interactions with diet and lifestyle and indicate whether specific functions require further genetic testing.

Here are some key aspects the Nutrient Core Report can reveal:

  • Nutrient Metabolism – The Report can analyze genetic variations related to how your body metabolises and utilizes specific nutrients, including vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and other essential compounds. This information can help identify any genetic predispositions that may affect nutrient absorption, transport, utilisation, or excretion.
  • Dietary Recommendations – Based on your genetic profile, the Nutrient Core test can offer personalised dietary recommendations to optimise your nutrient intake and support overall health and well-being. This may involve tailored advice on nutrient-rich foods, supplementation strategies, or dietary modifications to address any genetic vulnerabilities or deficiencies.
  • Nutrient Interactions – The Report can identify genetic variations that influence how your body interacts with certain nutrients or dietary components. This includes factors such as nutrient-nutrient interactions, nutrient-drug interactions, and nutrient-gene interactions, which can impact nutrient metabolism, bioavailability, and effectiveness.
  • Disease Risk Assessment – By assessing genetic predispositions related to nutrient metabolism and utilization, the Nutrient Core test can help evaluate your risk of developing certain health conditions or nutrient-related disorders. This may include conditions such as vitamin deficiencies, mineral imbalances, oxidative stress-related diseases, or metabolic disorders.
  • Optimal Health Promotion – The Report aims to empower individuals with personalised information to proactively manage their health and optimize their nutritional status based on their unique genetic profile. By understanding how your genes influence nutrient metabolism and requirements, you can make informed decisions about your diet, lifestyle, and supplementation to promote optimal health and prevent potential health risks.

It includes genes that have been shown to affect:

  • Food Response – Gluten (coeliac) and lactose intolerance. (HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, and LCT).
  • Caffeine – Sensitivity and metabolism. (CYP1A2, and ADORA2A).
  • Microbiome – diversity. (FUT2).
  • Vitamin Need – Vitamins A, B9 (folate), B12 (cobalamin), C, D and K. (BCO1, MTHFR, FUT2, TCN2, SLC23A1, COL1A1, GC, VDR, and VKORC1).
  • Blood Pressure – Sodium-potassium balance & salt sensitive hypertension. (ACE, and AGT).
  • Detoxification – Glutathione. (GSTM1).
  • Metabolism – Blood sugar control (insulin), appetite (leptin). (FADS1/2, FTO, TCF7L2, PGC1A, and LEPR).
  • Inflammation – Specific (infection response) and systemic. (TNF, and IFNG).
  • Circadian Rhythm – Early bird or night owl predisposition. (CLOCK, and PER1).

Metabolic Report and Overview

Metabolism is the complex network of biochemical processes that occur within living organisms to sustain life. It involves the conversion of nutrients from food into energy and the synthesis of molecules necessary for cellular function and growth.

A Metabolic Report in nutrigenomics offers personalized insights into your genetic metabolic profile, providing valuable information to support optimal metabolism, improve nutrient utilization, and enhance overall health and well-being.

Metabolism is essential for sustaining life by providing energy, building and repairing cellular structures, eliminating waste products, and regulating physiological processes to maintain internal balance and health. Dysregulation of metabolism can lead to various health conditions, including metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome.

These complex processes of anabolism (‘build up’ e.g. synthesis of sugars, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids) and catabolism (‘break down’ e.g. releasing energy in the form of ATP). The balance between them are the key to energy metabolism, healthy cell structure, and cellular function.

Here are some key roles of metabolism in the body:

  • Energy Production – One of the primary functions of metabolism is to convert nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This energy is essential for various cellular activities, including muscle contraction, nerve transmission, and maintaining basic bodily functions.
  • Nutrient Utilisation – Metabolism helps break down nutrients obtained from food into smaller molecules that can be absorbed and utilized by cells. For example, carbohydrates are converted into glucose, fats into fatty acids, and proteins into amino acids, which are then used as building blocks for cellular structures or as energy sources.
  • Cellular Respiration – Metabolism encompasses cellular respiration, a series of biochemical reactions that occur within mitochondria to produce ATP through the oxidation of glucose and fatty acids. Cellular respiration involves processes such as glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation.
  • Biosynthesis – Metabolism is involved in the synthesis of complex molecules necessary for cellular structure and function. This includes the production of lipids, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), proteins, and other biomolecules required for growth, repair, and maintenance of tissues.
  • Detoxification – Metabolism plays a crucial role in the detoxification and elimination of waste products and harmful substances from the body. This includes the metabolism of drugs, toxins, and metabolic byproducts such as ammonia and reactive oxygen species.
  • Regulation of Homeostasis – Metabolism helps maintain homeostasis, the stable internal environment necessary for the proper functioning of cells and organs. This involves balancing energy intake and expenditure, regulating blood glucose levels, and adjusting metabolic processes in response to internal and external cues.
  • Hormone Regulation – Metabolism influences hormone secretion and activity, and hormones, in turn, regulate various metabolic processes. For example, insulin regulates glucose uptake and storage, while hormones such as thyroid hormones and cortisol influence metabolic rate and energy expenditure.
  • Temperature Regulation – Metabolism generates heat as a byproduct of energy production, which helps regulate body temperature and maintain thermal balance.

Here are some key aspects a Metabolic Report can reveal:

  • Nutrient Metabolism – The Report can assess genetic variations in enzymes and pathways involved in the metabolism of macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins) and micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, antioxidants). This includes genes encoding enzymes responsible for nutrient digestion, absorption, transport, storage, utilization, and excretion.
  • Energy Metabolism – Genetic variations related to energy metabolism, including metabolic rate, energy expenditure, thermogenesis, and adipose tissue regulation, can be evaluated through the metabolic test. This includes genes involved in mitochondrial function, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and hormonal regulation of metabolism.
  • Weight Management – The Report can provide insights into genetic factors that influence weight management, including individual responses to dietary interventions, exercise, and lifestyle changes. Genetic variations in metabolism-related genes can affect energy balance, appetite regulation, fat storage, and susceptibility to obesity or weight gain.
  • Insulin Sensitivity and Blood Sugar Regulation – Genetic variations associated with insulin sensitivity, glucose metabolism, and blood sugar regulation can be assessed through the metabolic test. This includes genes involved in insulin signaling, pancreatic beta-cell function, glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, and insulin resistance.
  • Lipid Metabolism and Cardiovascular Health – The Report can analyze genetic variations related to lipid metabolism, including cholesterol synthesis, transport, and clearance. Genetic factors that influence lipid levels, lipoprotein metabolism, and cardiovascular disease risk can be evaluated through the metabolic test.
  • Detoxification Pathways – Genetic variations in enzymes and pathways involved in detoxification and elimination of toxins, pollutants, drugs, and metabolic byproducts can be assessed through the metabolic test. This includes genes encoding phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes, antioxidant defenses, and xenobiotic metabolism.
  • Inflammatory Response – The Report can provide insights into genetic factors that influence inflammatory response pathways and immune function. Genetic variations related to inflammation, oxidative stress, cytokine signaling, and immune regulation can affect metabolic health and susceptibility to inflammatory conditions.
  • Personalized Nutritional Recommendations – Based on your genetic metabolic profile, the Report can offer personalized nutritional recommendations to support metabolic health, optimize nutrient metabolism, and reduce the risk of metabolic disorders. This may include dietary interventions, supplementation strategies, and lifestyle modifications tailored to address specific genetic vulnerabilities or imbalances.

The genes that are looked at:

  • Appetite Regulation – (BDNF, FAAH, FTO, LEPR, MC4R, NPY, and POMC).
  • Nutrient Sensing – (ADIPOQ, FOXO3, HIF1A, IRS1, PARP1, PGC1A, PPARA, PPARG, SIRT1, and VEGFA).
  • Sugar Metabolism – (AMPD1, GCK, GLUT2, IRS1, PPARG, and TCF7L2).
  • Fat Metabolism – (ADRB3, CD36, CPT1A, FABP2, LPL, PLIN1, PPARA, and SREBF1).
  • Cholesterol and Bile – (CYP7A1, HMGCR, LDLR, and SREBF1).
  • Mitochondria and Inflammation – (CAT, CRP, FOXO3, GPX1, IFNG, IL6, NRF2, SIRT3, SOD2, TNF, and UCP1/2/3).

Detoxification Report and Overview

Detoxification is the physiological removal of toxic substances from the human body. It is mainly carried out by the liver, and to a lesser extent the small intestine, kidneys and lungs.

A Detoxification Report offers personalised insights into your genetic detoxification profile, providing valuable information to support detoxification pathways, optimize health outcomes, and reduce the risk of toxin-related health conditions.

Substances such as nutrients, food additives, pesticides, medications, air pollutants, alcohol and hormones are transformed from being fat-soluble to water-soluble, allowing them to be more easily excreted from the body. Poor detoxification can cause symptoms such as:

  • Headaches.
  • Muscle aches.
  • Fatigue.
  • Allergies.
  • Skin disorders.
  • Weight gain.
  • Bloating.
  • Acid reflux and heartburn.
  • Excessive sweating.
  • Chronic infections.
  • Subfertility.
  • Low libido.
  • Poor mental function
  • Low stress tolerance.

Here are some key aspects a Detoxification Report can reveal:

  • Detoxification Pathways – The test can identify genetic variations in key enzymes and pathways involved in the body’s detoxification processes, such as Phase I (activation) and Phase II (conjugation) detoxification pathways. This includes genes encoding cytochrome P450 enzymes, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), and other detoxification enzymes. Phase III (antiporter gene ABCB1), which affects the transport of medicines and other substances into and out of cells. It also include genes that help to neutralise ROS – due to toxic intermediates (generated in Phase 1). 
  • Metabolic Capacity – Based on your genetic profile, the detox test can assess your metabolic capacity for detoxification and identify any genetic variations that may influence the efficiency or effectiveness of detoxification processes. This information can help determine your susceptibility to environmental toxins, drug metabolism, and detoxification-related health risks.
  • Toxin Sensitivity – The Report can evaluate your genetic predispositions to toxin sensitivity or susceptibility based on variations in detoxification enzyme activity, toxin clearance rates, and oxidative stress response pathways. This can help identify individuals who may be more vulnerable to environmental toxins or have impaired detoxification capacity.
  • Nutrient Support – By understanding your genetic detoxification profile, the test can provide personalised recommendations for nutritional support to optimize detoxification pathways and enhance toxin clearance. This may include dietary interventions, supplementation strategies, and lifestyle modifications aimed at supporting liver function, antioxidant defenses, and overall detoxification capacity.
  • Disease Risk Assessment – Genetic variations related to detoxification pathways can influence your risk of developing certain health conditions associated with toxin exposure, oxidative stress, and impaired detoxification. The detox test can help assess your susceptibility to conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic syndrome based on your genetic detoxification profile.
  • Environmental Sensitivity – The Report can provide insights into how your genetic makeup interacts with environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and dietary habits to impact detoxification capacity and overall health outcomes. This can help individuals make informed decisions about minimizing toxin exposure, adopting healthier lifestyle practices, and mitigating potential health risks associated with environmental toxins.

The genes that are looked at:

  • (CYP450s: CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4).
  • Alcohol – (ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2).
  • Pesticides – (PON1).
  • ROS – (SOD2, GPX1, and NQO1).
  • Glucuronidation – (UGT1A1, and UGT1A6).
  • Methylation – (COMT, and TPMT).
  • Sulphonation – (SULT1A1, SULT1E1, and SULT2A1).
  • Acetylation – (NAT1, and NAT2).
  • Glutathione – (GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1).
  • Antiporter – (ABCB1).

Methylation Report and Overview

Methylation helps the body to perform optimally. When it’s not working well, it can easily show up as premature aging as the body cannot detoxify efficiently.

A Methylation Report offers personalized insights into your genetic methylation profile, providing valuable information to support optimal methylation function, reduce disease risk, and improve overall health and well-being.

Methylation is a fundamental biochemical process that regulates gene expression, cellular function, and various physiological processes throughout the body. Imbalances or dysregulation in methylation pathways can contribute to a wide range of health conditions, including neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and metabolic disorders.

It is involved in almost every metabolic process in the body, occurring billions of times every second in our cells and contributing to numerous crucial functions.

Here are some key roles of methylation in the body:

  • Gene Expression Regulation – Methylation of DNA can influence gene expression by either enhancing or inhibiting the transcription of genes. Methylation patterns on DNA can affect how tightly the DNA is packed around histone proteins, thereby influencing whether genes are turned on or off.
  • Epigenetic Regulation – Methylation patterns on DNA and histones contribute to epigenetic regulation, which refers to heritable changes in gene expression that occur without changes to the underlying DNA sequence. Epigenetic modifications play critical roles in development, cell differentiation, and disease susceptibility.
  • Neurotransmitter Metabolism – Methylation is involved in the synthesis and metabolism of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. Proper methylation is essential for maintaining optimal neurotransmitter levels, which are crucial for mood regulation, cognition, and other neurological functions.
  • Detoxification – Methylation is a key process in the body’s detoxification pathways, particularly in the liver. It helps convert toxins and harmful substances into less toxic or more easily excretable forms, facilitating their elimination from the body.
  • Histamine Regulation – Methylation can influence the metabolism and breakdown of histamine, a compound involved in allergic reactions and immune responses. Dysregulation of histamine levels due to impaired methylation can contribute to allergies, histamine intolerance, and other inflammatory conditions.
  • Cardiovascular Health – Methylation is involved in the metabolism of homocysteine, an amino acid associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease when present in elevated levels. Proper methylation helps convert homocysteine into other substances, reducing its harmful effects on blood vessels and cardiovascular health.
  • Fetal Development – Methylation is critical during fetal development, particularly for processes such as cell differentiation, organogenesis, and genomic imprinting. Dysregulation of methylation patterns during pregnancy can have significant implications for the health and development of the fetus.

Here are some key roles of methylation in the body:

Here are some key aspects a Methylation Report can reveal:

  • DNA Methylation Patterns – The Report can assess DNA methylation patterns, which involve the addition of methyl groups to DNA molecules, influencing gene expression and cellular function. Genetic variations in genes encoding DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and other enzymes involved in DNA methylation can affect gene regulation, epigenetic modifications, and susceptibility to diseases.
  • Epigenetic Regulation – The Report can provide insights into epigenetic regulation, which refers to heritable changes in gene expression that occur without alterations to the DNA sequence. DNA methylation plays a crucial role in epigenetic modifications, influencing gene silencing, chromatin structure, and cellular differentiation during development.
  • Methylation Pathways – The Report can analyze genetic variations in enzymes and pathways involved in methylation metabolism, including methionine cycle, folate cycle, transsulfuration pathway, and one-carbon metabolism. These pathways are essential for providing methyl groups (from nutrients such as folate, vitamin B12, and choline) for methylation reactions and regulating cellular methylation capacity.
  • Homocysteine Metabolism – Genetic variations related to homocysteine metabolism, including genes encoding enzymes such as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS), and methionine synthase (MTR), can be assessed through the methylation test. Dysregulation of homocysteine metabolism can contribute to elevated homocysteine levels, which are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and other health conditions.
  • Nutrient Requirements – Based on your genetic methylation profile, the Report can provide insights into your individual nutrient requirements for optimal methylation function. Genetic variations in methylation-related genes can influence nutrient metabolism, absorption, utilization, and interindividual differences in response to dietary nutrients and supplements.
  • Disease Risk Assessment – The Report can assess your risk of developing certain health conditions associated with methylation dysregulation, including cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, metabolic syndrome, and psychiatric disorders. Genetic variations in methylation-related genes can increase susceptibility to disease under certain environmental and lifestyle factors.
  • Personalized Interventions – Based on your genetic methylation profile, the Report can guide personalized interventions to support methylation pathways, optimize nutrient metabolism, and reduce the risk of methylation-related health conditions. This may include dietary modifications, lifestyle changes, targeted supplementation, and other strategies tailored to address specific genetic vulnerabilities or imbalances.
  • Folate Cycle – (DHFR, FOLH1, MTHFD1, MTHFR, RFC1, SHMT1 and TYMS).
  • Methionine Cycle – (AHCY, BHMT, CHDH, FUT2, MAT1A, MTR, MTRR, PEMT and TCN2).
  • Neurotransmitter Cycle – (COMT, MAOA, MAOB, MTHFR, PNMT, QDPR and VDR).
  • Transsulfuration Cycle – (CBS, CTH, GSS, MUT and SUOX).

Hormones Report and Overview

Steroid hormones are a group of hormones derived from cholesterol including progesterone, oestrogen, testosterone, DHEA, and cortisol (and their derivatives). They are involved in the regulation of many physiological processes in both men and women, such as the development and function of the reproductive system, metabolism, inflammation and immune system. 

A Hormones Report focusing on Steroid hormones offers personalized insights into your genetic hormone profile, providing valuable information to support hormone balance, optimize reproductive health, manage hormone-related conditions, and improve overall well-being.

Steroid hormones are generally carried in the blood, bound to specific carrier proteins. Further metabolism and catabolism occurs in the liver, in other peripheral tissues, and in target tissues.

Symptoms of steroid hormone imbalance can affect men and women, and include:

  • Cortisol (Adrenal Hormone):
    • Cushing’s Syndrome (Excess Cortisol):
      • Weight gain, particularly around the abdomen and face (moon face)
      • Thin, fragile skin that bruises easily
      • Muscle weakness
      • High blood pressure
      • Elevated blood sugar levels
      • Mood swings, anxiety, or depression
    • Addison’s Disease (Deficiency of Cortisol):
      • Fatigue and weakness
      • Weight loss
      • Low blood pressure
      • Darkening of the skin (hyperpigmentation)
      • Nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain
      • Salt cravings
  • Estrogen:
    • Estrogen Dominance (Excess Estrogen):
      • Irregular menstrual periods
      • Heavy or painful periods
      • Breast tenderness
      • Mood swings or irritability
      • Weight gain, especially around the hips and thighs
      • Fibrocystic breast changes
      • Headaches or migraines
    • Estrogen Deficiency:
      • Irregular or absent menstrual periods
      • Hot flashes or night sweats
      • Vaginal dryness
      • Decreased libido
      • Mood changes, such as depression or anxiety
      • Bone loss (osteoporosis)
  • Testosterone:
    • Excess Testosterone (in Women):
      • Acne
      • Excessive facial or body hair growth (hirsutism)
      • Irregular menstrual periods or absent periods
      • Male-pattern baldness
      • Deepening voice
      • Increased muscle mass
    • Testosterone Deficiency (in Men):
      • Decreased libido or erectile dysfunction
      • Fatigue and decreased energy
      • Loss of muscle mass or strength
      • Increased body fat
      • Mood changes, such as depression or irritability
      • Decreased bone density
  • Progesterone:
    • Excess Progesterone (less common, typically due to medication):
      • Breast tenderness
      • Mood swings or irritability
      • Bloating or water retention
    • Progesterone Deficiency:
      • Irregular menstrual periods or heavy periods
      • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms, such as mood swings, irritability, or bloating
      • Difficulty conceiving or maintaining pregnancy
      • Anxiety or depression

It’s important to note that these symptoms can overlap with other conditions, and the presence of one or more symptoms does not necessarily indicate a hormone imbalance.

The Hormones Report (focusing on Steroid hormones) analyses genes involved in the regulation, synthesis, signalling, transport and metabolism of corticosteroids and sex steroids hormones. It looks at how gene variants affects hormones imbalance and details the nutrients and environmental factors that can influence and improve their balance. Here are some key aspects a Hormone Report can reveal:

  • Genetic Variations Affecting Hormone Metabolism – The Report can identify genetic variations (such as single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs) that influence the activity of enzymes involved in steroid hormone metabolism. For example, variations in genes encoding enzymes like cytochrome P450s (CYPs) or UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) can impact how efficiently your body metabolizes hormones like cortisol or estrogen.
  • Nutrient-Hormone Interactions – The Report can also uncover genetic predispositions that affect how your body responds to certain nutrients. For instance, genetic variations may influence your ability to absorb, metabolize, or utilize specific vitamins, minerals, or phytochemicals that play roles in hormone synthesis, metabolism, or signaling pathways.
  • Hormone Imbalance Risk Assessment – By examining your genetic profile in conjunction with your hormone levels, the Report can help predict your risk of developing hormonal imbalances or related health conditions. For instance, certain genetic variations may increase susceptibility to conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), adrenal insufficiency, or estrogen dominance.
  • Personalized Dietary and Lifestyle Recommendations – Armed with information about your genetic predispositions and hormone metabolism, the Report can guide personalized dietary and lifestyle recommendations to optimize hormone balance and overall health. This might involve tailored dietary interventions, supplementation strategies, or lifestyle modifications aimed at supporting hormone metabolism, reducing inflammation, and improving hormonal health.
  • Response to Nutritional Interventions – The Report can also shed light on how your genetic makeup influences your response to specific dietary interventions or nutritional supplements aimed at modulating hormone levels. This information can help refine and individualize your approach to hormone balance and wellness.

The genes that are looked at:

  • Steroid Hormones – (AKR1C4, CYP17A1, GABRA2, HSD11B1, SRD5A2, and SULT2A1).
  • Oestrogen – (COMT, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP19A1, ESR1, ESR2, MTHFR, and NQO1).
  • Detoxification – (ABCB1, GSTM1, GSTP1, SULT1A1, SULT1E1, and UGT1A1).
  • HPA Axis – (ADRB1, ADRB2, FKBP5, MTNR1B, OPRM1, and TCF7L2).
  • HPG Axis – (ESR1, ESR2, and FAAH).

Thyroid Report and Overview

Thyroid hormones control the metabolism of almost every cell in the body, with wide-ranging metabolic, developmental and cardiovascular effects.

A Thyroid Report focuses on analyzing genetic variations related to thyroid function, metabolism, and hormone regulation.

Thyroid activity is altered by genetics and environmental factors: nutrients (tyrosine, selenium and iodine), toxins (fluoride, chlorine or moulds), psychosocial stressors, physical stressors, bacteria, and viruses.

Symptoms of thyroid imbalances:

  • HPT axis (Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid) dysfunction.
  • Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs)
    • Graves’ and Hashimoto’s.
  • Thyroid sensitive cancers (rare).
  • Hypothyroidism (under activity)
    • Weight gain.
    • Fatigue.
    • Low libido.
    • cold intolerance.
    • Dry skin.
    • Constipation.
    • Depression.
  • Hyperthyroidism (over activity)
    • Anxiety.
    • Heat intolerance.
    • Heart palpitations.
    • Insomnia.
    • Weight loss.

Here are some key aspects a Thyroid Report can reveal:

  • Thyroid Hormone Synthesis – The Report can identify genetic variations in genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis, including thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase, and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor. These variations can influence the production, secretion, and regulation of thyroid hormones, such as thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).
  • Thyroid Hormone Conversion – Genetic variations in enzymes responsible for the conversion of thyroid hormones (T4 to T3) can affect thyroid hormone levels and metabolism. The Report can assess genes encoding enzymes such as deiodinases (DIO1, DIO2, DIO3), which play a crucial role in thyroid hormone conversion and bioavailability.
  • Thyroid Hormone Transport – The Report can evaluate genetic variations in thyroid hormone transporters, such as thyroid hormone-binding proteins and transporters across cell membranes. These variations can impact thyroid hormone uptake, distribution, and clearance from circulation, influencing thyroid function and metabolic rate.
  • Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders – Genetic variations associated with autoimmune thyroid disorders, such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Graves’ disease, can be assessed through the thyroid test. This includes genes related to immune function, inflammation, and thyroid autoantibody production, which contribute to the development and progression of autoimmune thyroid conditions.
  • Thyroid Receptor Sensitivity – The Report can identify genetic variations in thyroid hormone receptors and signaling pathways, affecting cellular responsiveness to thyroid hormones. These variations can influence metabolic rate, energy expenditure, thermogenesis, and other physiological processes regulated by thyroid hormones.
  • Thyroid Disease Risk Assessment – Based on your genetic profile, the Report can assess your risk of developing thyroid disorders, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, goiter, nodules, and thyroid cancer. Genetic predispositions related to thyroid function and metabolism can increase susceptibility to thyroid disease under certain environmental and lifestyle factors.
  • Response to Thyroid Medications – Genetic variations can affect individual responses to thyroid medications, such as levothyroxine (T4) or liothyronine (T3), used to treat thyroid disorders. The Report can provide insights into genetic factors that may influence drug metabolism, efficacy, dosage requirements, and potential side effects of thyroid medications.

The genes that are looked at:

  • HPT Axis – (CAPZB, FKBP5, GPX1*, PDE8B, TG*, and TSHR* (*also involved in autoimmunity)).
  • Autoimmune – (CTLA4, FOXE1, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, and PTPN22).
  • Inflammation – (CD40, FCRL3, IL6, TNF, GC, and VDR).
  • Transport – (SLCO1B1, and SLCO1C1).
  • Activation – (DIO1, DIO2, BCO1, GC, and VDR).
  • Metabolism – (SULT1A1, SULT1E1, and UGT1A1).

Nervous System Report and Overview

The nervous system supports the transmission of messages around the mind and body, enabling an individual to respond to their environment.

A Nervous System Report offers personalized insights into your genetic nervous system profile, providing valuable information to support brain health, cognitive function, emotional well-being, and resilience against neurological disorders and age-related changes.

A neurotransmitter is a molecule that carries signals between neurons and across nerve junctions (synapses). Excitatory neurotransmitters increase the likelihood a neuron will fire a signal, while inhibitory neurotransmitters have the opposite effect. In order for us to interact effectively with our environment, neurotransmitters must remain in balance.

Symptoms of neurotransmitter imbalances can include::

  • Mood Imbalances
  • Depression.
  • Mania.
  • Attention Deficit.
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorders.
  • Addictive Behaviours.
  • Motor Control Disruption.
  • Anger, Aggression and Restlessness.

Here are some key aspects a Nervous System Report can reveal:

  • Neurotransmitter Metabolism – The Report can identify genetic variations in enzymes and pathways involved in neurotransmitter synthesis, metabolism, and signaling. Neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) play crucial roles in regulating mood, cognition, behavior, and neurological function.
  • Neurological Disorders – Genetic variations associated with neurological disorders and conditions, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), can be assessed through the nervous system test. This includes genes involved in neurodegeneration, inflammation, synaptic transmission, and neuronal signaling pathways.
  • Brain Health and Cognitive Function – The Report can provide insights into genetic factors that influence brain health, cognitive function, and mental performance. This includes genetic variations related to memory, learning, attention, executive function, and other aspects of cognitive processing.
  • Stress Response and Resilience – Genetic variations in stress-related genes and pathways can affect individual responses to stress, resilience, and susceptibility to stress-related disorders such as anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The nervous system Report can assess genetic predispositions related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, cortisol metabolism, and stress response pathways.
  • Neurodevelopmental Disorders – Genetic variations associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, such as intellectual disability, developmental delay, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), can be evaluated through the nervous system test. This includes genes involved in neuronal development, synaptogenesis, neurotransmitter regulation, and synaptic plasticity.
  • Neuroprotection and Aging – The Report can assess genetic factors that influence neuroprotection, neuroplasticity, and aging-related changes in the nervous system. This includes genes involved in antioxidant defense mechanisms, mitochondrial function, DNA repair, and cellular resilience against neurodegeneration.
  • Individualized Treatment Approaches – Based on your genetic profile, the nervous system Report can guide personalized treatment approaches to support neurological health and optimize cognitive function. This may include dietary interventions, lifestyle modifications, nutritional supplements, and targeted therapies tailored to address specific genetic vulnerabilities or imbalances.

The genes that are looked at:

  • Serotonin – (ALDH2, HTR1A, HTR2A, MAOA, MTHFR, SLC18A1 (VMAT), VDR, and TPH1 &2).
  • Kynurenic Acid – (FKBP5, IFNG, and TNF).
  • Melatonin – (ASMT, and MTNR1B).
  • Dopamine – (ALDH2, COMT, DRD2, MAOB, MAOA, MTHFR, OPRM1, SLC6A3 (DAT), TH, and VDR).
  • Adrenergic – (ADRB2, COMT, DBH, MAOA, PNMT, SLC6A2 (NET), and SLC18A1 (VMAT)).
  • GABA – ALPL, GAD1, GAD2, GABRA2
  • Cannabinoid – (CNR1, TRPV1, and FAAH).

APOE Report and Overview (plus Methylation, Inflammation, Toxicity, and Neuroprotection)

The Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is best known for its role in lipid (fat) metabolism by helping to remove cholesterol from the bloodstream.

An APOE Report offers personalized insights into your genetic risk factors for cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease, providing valuable information to guide preventive measures.

A neurotransmitter is a molecule that carries signals between neurons and across nerve junctions (synapses). Excitatory neurotransmitters increase the likelihood a neuron will fire a signal, while inhibitory neurotransmitters have the opposite effect. In order for us to interact effectively with our environment, neurotransmitters must remain in balance.

Here are some symptoms or health implications associated with poor variants of the APOE gene and the other included tested genes that govern Methylation, Inflammation, Toxicity, and Neuroprotection:

  • Cardiovascular Symptoms
    • Elevated levels of LDL cholesterol: Certain variants of the APOE gene, such as APOE ε4, are associated with higher levels of LDL cholesterol, which can contribute to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.
    • Increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD): Poor variants of the APOE gene, particularly APOE ε4, are linked to an increased risk of developing CAD, leading to symptoms such as chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, and heart attack (myocardial infarction).
    • Elevated Homocysteine Levels: MTHFR gene variations may lead to elevated levels of homocysteine, an amino acid associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other health problems. Elevated homocysteine levels can result from impaired conversion of homocysteine to methionine, a process that requires MTHFR activity.
  • Neurological Symptoms
    • Memory loss and cognitive decline: APOE ε4 is a significant genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Individuals with this variant may experience symptoms of memory loss, cognitive decline, confusion, and difficulty with daily tasks as they age.
    • Neurodegenerative changes: Poor variants of the APOE gene, particularly APOE ε4, may be associated with increased deposition of beta-amyloid plaques and tau protein tangles in the brain, which are pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease.
    • Neurological Disorders: Dysregulated production of IFN-γ and TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. These cytokines can contribute to neuroinflammation, neuronal damage, and neurodegeneration in these conditions. BDNF gene variations may contribute to the development of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). BDNF is involved in neuronal development, synaptogenesis, and synaptic pruning during critical periods of brain development, and alterations in BDNF function may disrupt these processes.
    • Neurodegenerative Diseases: Changes in BDNF expression or function have been observed in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. BDNF promotes neuronal survival, protects against neurotoxicity, and enhances synaptic plasticity, and deficits in BDNF signaling may contribute to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
    • Anxiety Disorders: Dysregulation of BDNF signaling has also been implicated in anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). BDNF modulates anxiety-related behaviors and neuroplasticity in brain circuits involved in the stress response and fear processing.
    • Mood Disorders: Reduced BDNF levels or impaired BDNF signaling have been associated with mood disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder. BDNF plays a critical role in regulating mood and emotional responses by promoting neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity in brain regions involved in mood regulation, such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.
    • Cognitive Impairment and Decline: Reduced BDNF levels or impaired BDNF signaling have been associated with cognitive impairment and decline in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. BDNF plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis in brain regions involved in learning, memory, and executive function, and alterations in BDNF function may impair cognitive processes.
  • Reduced Detoxification Ability
    • Detoxification Efficiency: Methylation is involved in the body’s detoxification processes, and impaired methylation due to MTHFR gene variations may affect detoxification efficiency. This could potentially increase susceptibility to environmental toxins and pollutants.
    • Oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cellular injury: Genetic variations that result in the absence or decreased activity of GST enzymes encoded by GSTM1, GSTT1, or GSTP1 may impair the body’s ability to detoxify and eliminate harmful substances, such as environmental pollutants, carcinogens, drugs, and toxins. This can lead to increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cellular injury.
    • Reduced Detoxification Capacity: Genetic variations that result in the absence or decreased activity of GST enzymes encoded by GSTM1, GSTT1, or GSTP1 may impair the body’s ability to detoxify and eliminate harmful substances, such as environmental pollutants, carcinogens, drugs, and toxins. This can lead to increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cellular injury.
    • Respiratory Symptoms: Exposure to environmental pollutants such as cigarette smoke, air pollutants, and occupational toxins can overwhelm the body’s detoxification capacity. Individuals with genetic variations that compromise GST enzyme activity may be more susceptible to respiratory symptoms, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and respiratory infections, due to impaired detoxification of airborne toxins and irritants.
    • Increased Toxicity of Medications: GST enzymes are involved in the metabolism and elimination of certain medications and drugs. Genetic variations that affect GST activity may alter drug metabolism pathways, leading to increased drug toxicity or reduced efficacy. This can result in adverse drug reactions, drug interactions, and treatment failure.
    • Susceptibility to Environmental Toxins: Individuals with reduced GST enzyme activity may be more vulnerable to the toxic effects of environmental pollutants, heavy metals, pesticides, and industrial chemicals. Prolonged exposure to these toxins without efficient detoxification can contribute to chronic health problems, including neurological disorders, liver damage, and reproductive issues.
  • Inflammation:
    • Increased susceptibility to inflammation and oxidative stress: Poor variants of the APOE gene may contribute to increased susceptibility to inflammation and oxidative stress, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of various chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders.
    • Increased Inflammatory Response: Variations in the IFNG and TNF genes may lead to dysregulated production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, resulting in an exaggerated or prolonged inflammatory response. Chronic inflammation is associated with various health problems, including autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and multiple sclerosis), cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers.
    • Chronic Inflammatory Conditions: Variations in the IFNG and TNF genes may contribute to the development or exacerbation of chronic inflammatory conditions characterized by persistent inflammation. These conditions may include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and psoriasis.
    • Impaired Wound Healing: IFN-γ and TNF-α play roles in the inflammatory phase of wound healing by promoting inflammation and tissue repair. Dysregulated production of these cytokines may impair the normal wound healing process, leading to delayed or abnormal wound healing and tissue regeneration.
  • Other Health Implications
    • Impaired lipid metabolism: Variants of the APOE gene can affect lipid metabolism and cholesterol transport, leading to dyslipidemia and altered lipid profiles that may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
    • Impaired lipid metabolism: Variants of the APOE gene can affect lipid metabolism and cholesterol transport, leading to dyslipidemia and altered lipid profiles that may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
    • Potential impact on response to dietary and lifestyle interventions: Individuals with poor variants of the APOE gene may have different responses to dietary factors, physical activity, and lifestyle interventions compared to those with other APOE variants. This can influence disease risk and health outcomes.
    • Increased Risk of Neural Tube Defects: Pregnant individuals with certain MTHFR gene variations may have an increased risk of giving birth to infants with neural tube defects, such as spina bifida or anencephaly. This is partly due to impaired folate metabolism, as MTHFR is involved in converting folate into its active form, which is necessary for proper neural tube development in the fetus.
    • Autoimmune Diseases: Dysregulated production of IFN-γ and TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. For example, elevated levels of TNF-α are associated with inflammation and tissue damage in rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease, while IFN-γ plays a role in the development of autoimmune thyroid diseases and type 1 diabetes.
    • Altered Pain Sensitivity: BDNF is involved in the regulation of pain sensitivity and nociceptive processing in the nervous system. Genetic variations in the BDNF gene may influence pain perception and sensitivity to chronic pain conditions such as fibromyalgia, neuropathic pain, and migraine.
    • Impaired Stress Response: BDNF is implicated in the regulation of the stress response and adaptation to stress. Dysregulation of BDNF signaling may disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and contribute to maladaptive stress responses, increasing susceptibility to stress-related psychiatric disorders and systemic health problems.

Here are some key aspects an APOE Report (plus Methylation, Inflammation, Toxicity, and Neuroprotection) can reveal:

  • APOE (Apolipoprotein E):
    • Cardiovascular risk: APOE genotype influences cholesterol metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk. Variants such as APOE ε4 are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
    • Alzheimer’s disease risk: APOE ε4 is a well-established genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease.
  • MTHFR (Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase):
    • Methylation capacity: MTHFR variants can affect methylation processes, which play a crucial role in DNA synthesis, repair, and regulation. Variants such as MTHFR C677T and A1298C may impact folate metabolism and influence disease risk.
  • IFNG (Interferon Gamma):
    • Immune function: IFNG is involved in immune response and inflammation regulation. Genetic variations may influence susceptibility to infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory conditions.
  • TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor):
    • Inflammation regulation: TNF is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in immune response and inflammatory signaling. Variants may affect susceptibility to chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease.
  • GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 (Glutathione S-Transferases):
    • Detoxification capacity: GST genes encode enzymes involved in detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics, carcinogens, and oxidative stress products. Variations in these genes may influence detoxification capacity and susceptibility to toxin-related diseases.
  • BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor):
    • Neuroprotection and cognitive function: BDNF is involved in neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and cognitive function. Variants may influence brain health, neurodevelopment, and risk of neurological disorders, including depression, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer’s disease.

The genes that are looked at:

  • Lipid Metabolism – (APOE).
  • Methylation – (MTHFR).
  • Inflammation – (IFNG, and TNF).
  • Detoxification – (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1).
  • Neuroprotection – (BDNF).

Histamine Intolerance Report and Overview

Histamine intolerance is the body’s reaction to an imbalance between accumulated histamine and the capacity to break it down. When the body is unable to break histamine down quickly enough it becomes toxic, and can result in skin irritation or breathing difficulties, digestive problems, headaches, insomnia and anxiety.

A Histamine Intolerance Report offers personalized insights into your genetic predisposition to histamine intolerance, providing valuable information to support dietary and lifestyle interventions tailored to your individual needs and optimize symptom management.

Symptoms can vary widely among individuals, but common signs of histamine intolerance may include:

  • Gastrointestinal Symptoms:
    • Abdominal pain
    • Bloating and gas
    • Diarrhea or constipation
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Acid reflux or heartburn
  • Skin Reactions:
    • Itchy or red skin (urticaria or hives)
    • Flushing or redness of the face
    • Swelling, particularly of the lips, face, tongue, or throat
    • Eczema or dermatitis
    • Skin rashes or welts
  • Respiratory Symptoms:
    • Nasal congestion or stuffiness
    • Sneezing or runny nose
    • Itchy or watery eyes
    • Sinus pressure or headaches
    • Difficulty breathing or wheezing (in severe cases)
  • Neurological Symptoms:
    • Headaches or migraines
    • Dizziness or lightheadedness
    • Fatigue or lethargy
    • Difficulty concentrating or brain fog
    • Anxiety or panic attacks
  • Cardiovascular Symptoms:
    • Rapid or irregular heartbeat (palpitations)
    • Low blood pressure (hypotension)
    • Flushing or warmth of the skin
    • Fainting or syncope (in severe cases)

Here are some key aspects a Histamine Intolerance Report can reveal:

  • Genetic Variations in Histamine Metabolism – The Report can identify genetic variations in enzymes involved in histamine metabolism, such as diamine oxidase (DAO) and histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT). DAO is responsible for breaking down histamine in the gut, while HNMT metabolizes histamine in other tissues. Variations in these genes can affect histamine clearance rates and contribute to histamine intolerance.
  • Susceptibility to Histamine Intolerance – Genetic variations associated with reduced DAO activity or impaired histamine metabolism may increase susceptibility to histamine intolerance. Histamine intolerance is characterized by an inability to properly metabolize ingested histamine, leading to symptoms such as headaches, flushing, hives, gastrointestinal discomfort, and respiratory issues.
  • Response to Dietary Histamine – Individuals with certain genetic variants may have a reduced capacity to metabolize dietary histamine, leading to symptoms of histamine intolerance when consuming histamine-rich foods or beverages. The Report can provide insights into genetic predispositions that influence individual responses to dietary histamine and guide personalized dietary recommendations to minimize histamine exposure and alleviate symptoms.
  • Potential Health Implications – Histamine intolerance can contribute to a range of health issues, including gastrointestinal disorders, skin conditions, headaches, migraines, allergies, and respiratory symptoms. By identifying genetic factors underlying histamine intolerance, the test can help elucidate the underlying mechanisms contributing to these health conditions and inform targeted interventions to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.
  • Nutritional Support – Based on your genetic profile, the Histamine Intolerance Report can offer personalized recommendations for nutritional support to mitigate histamine intolerance symptoms. This may include dietary modifications to reduce histamine intake, supplementation with nutrients that support histamine metabolism (such as vitamin B6 and copper), and lifestyle strategies to minimize triggers and optimize gut health.

The genes that are looked at:

  • Nervous, Immune – (HNMT, MAOB, and NAT2).
  • Methylation – (MTHFR).
  • Gastro Intestinal – (ALDH2, DAO, and GPX1).

All the Test Reports include personalised, colour coded genotype results, gene function and SNP impact descriptions, clinically relevant SNPs, nutrient and other epigenetic impacts, and links to research evidence.

Appointments and Nutrigenomic Test Fees

To obtain a Test and Report product or package you will need to have an Initial Consultation with Jo Gamble via a Video (Zoom) Call or failing that, by phone.

However, if you have had a Full Health Assessment at The Forbes Clinic, and have been recommended a product or package then there will be no requirement for an Initial Consultation.

Consultations

Concerning the 1-hour Follow-Up Consultation, Jo can offer interpretation for up to 5 reports, but this can be an overwhelming volume of information to receive, and 2-3 reports is more manageable. She does record the consultation however, and this can be sent to you afterwards so you can review again.

Intial Consultation

(1 hour)
This is to determine what Reporting will be appropiate for you following a DNA Test.

A review on your supplied Medical History

Confirmation of Recommended Reports(s)
£300

Follow-Up Consultation

(45 minutes)
Reports can be difficult to decipher. Review of a single Report only.

Your Test Report data interpretated

Receive a Plan-of-Action
£225

Follow-Up Consultation

(1 hour)
Maximum of 5 Reports are allowed for.

Your Test Reports data interpretated

Receive a Plan-of-Action
£300

DNA Test and Reports

DNA Test and Report

Choice of Nutrient Core, Metabolic, Detoxification, Methylation, Hormones, Thyroid, Nervous System, APOE, and Histamine Intolerance Report

Single Report

Receive a DNA Test Kit

Receive 1 Report after DNA Analysis 
£236

Additional Single Report

For every subsequent Report following your first DNA Test Kit Order.

Receive Additional Report after DNA Analysis 
£141

DNA Test and Report Packages

DNA Test and 5 Reports

5 Reports choices of Nutrient Core, Metabolic, Detoxifocation, Methylation, Hormones, Thyroid, Nervous System, APOE, and Histamine Intolerance.

Discounted Reports

Receive a DNA Test kit

Receive 5 Reports after DNA Analysis 
£688.50

DNA Test and Peri-Menopause Report

Metabolic, and Hormones Reports.

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Receive 2 Reports after DNA Analysis 
£377

DNA Test and Mast Cell Activation Syndrome Report

Histamine, and Hormones Reports.

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£377

DNA Test and Anxiety Report

Hormones, and Nervous System Reports.

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Receive 2 Reports after DNA Analysis 
£377

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